Metallurgy Basic Course

Multimedia Course on "METALLURGY"
(see Contents )

1.1 Chemical Systems
Homogeneous and heterogeneous systems
Chemical-physics of metallurgical processes
1.2 Physics of Metal Materials
Structure of matter
Solidification metals and alloys
Crystal lattices
Solid solutions
Deformations of the crystal lattice
Solid state transformations
1.3 Phase Diagram
Cooling curve of a pure metal
Solubility in the liquid state
Insolubility in the solid state
1.4 Phase Diagram of Binary Metal Alloys
General rules of interpretation
Iron-Carbon Diagram
- Hypoeutectoid steel
- Hypereutectoid steel
- Eutectoid steel
- Hypoeutectic cast iron
- Hypereutectic cast iron
- Structural transformations
- Critical points
Addition of Elements
1.5 Process Metallurgy
Metallurgical processes
Production of Carbon Steels
- Production of Cast Iron
- Refining
- Casting and Solidification
- Rolling
1.6 Heat Treatments
- Heat treatment steps
- Critical points
- Thermal transformations
- Cooling rate
- TTT and CCT Curve (or Bain curve)
- Steel hardenability
Kinetics transformation of the steel structure
- Austenite
- Ferrite
- Perlite
- Cementite
- Bainite
- Martensite
Type of thermal treatments
Heat treatments at temperatures above critical points
- Full Annealing
- Isothermal annealing
- Coalescence annealing
- Normalisation
- Quenching
Treatments without phase variations
- Tempering
- Softening annealing
- Relaxation
Quench and tempering
Surface heat treatments
- Induction hardening
- Thermochemical diffusion treatments
- Cementation
- Nitriding
- Comparison Cementation-Nitriding

2.1 Physical and mechanical characterization
Mechanical properties
Tensile strength
- Brinell Hardness
- Vickers Hardness
- Rockwell Hardness
- Microhardness
- Test equipment
- Transition ductile-brittle
- Transition temperature
- Resilience test
- Test parameters
- Izod impact strength test
Creep (Cold flow)
Fatigue resistance
- Fatigue failures
- Typical aspect of a fatigue fracture
- Fatigue tests
- Wohler's curve
- Fatigue limit
Surface roughness
- Roughness parameters
- Roughness measurement
2.2 Sample preparation
Sampling for mechanical tests
- Definitions
- Preparation and identification of the samples
Location and preparation of samples
- Flat products
- Long products
- Tubes
2.3 Test procedures and reference standards
Test procedures and standards
Test standards
Measurement uncertainty
- Possible factors of uncertainty
- Types of measurement uncertainty
- Expression of measurement uncertainty
2.4 Test results and suitability for use
Use of test results
Design mechanical parts
- Mechanical tests
- Tensile strength
- Traction stiffness
- Compressive strength
- Hardness measurement
- Resistance to torsion, bending
- Resistance to shear stresses
- Resistance to crack propagation
- Resistance to fatigue
- Resistance to creep
Environmental effects on mechanical properties
- Stress Corrosion Cracking
- Hydrogen Induced Cracking
- Corrosion Fatigue
- Resistance to shock
Manufacturing process
- Criticality of the transformation
- Mechanical properties and transformation
- Controls and Testing
Failure Analysis and Life Assessment
- Life assessment
- Failure analysis
Evaluation of test results

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Ferrous Alloys
Steel grades
Classification based on alloy elements
Classification according to applications
Structural steels
- General purpose steel
- Weldable steels
Special steels
- Quenched and tempered steels
- Nitriding steels
- Cement steels
- Self tempering steels
- Tool steels
- Steels for rolling bearings
- Spring steels
- Molding steels
Stainless steels
Casting steels
Cast Irons
3.3 Non-Ferrous Alloys
Aluminum Alloys
- Characteristic structures
- Alloy elements and features
- Influence of alloying elements
- Aluminum Industrial Alloys
Magnesium Alloys
Titanium Alloys
Copper Alloys
Nickel Alloys
Cobalt Alloys

4.1 Metallographic Techniques
4.2 Sample Preparation
Metallographic sample
Basic operations
- Sectioning or cutting
- Resin encapsulation
- Grinding
- Polishing
- Chemical etching
Metallographic replicas
4.3 Preparation Techniques
Ferrous alloys
Anti-friction alloys
Aluminum alloys
Copper alloys
Magnesium alloys
Nickel alloys
Titanium alloys
Zinc alloys
4.4 Micrographic Examinations
Optical microscopy
Scanning Electron Microscopy
- Components
- Operation principle
- Related technique
- Metallurgical application
- Evolution of microscopy techniques
- Evolution of microanalysis techniques
4.5 Characteristic Structures of Ferrous Materials
4.6 Test procedures and reference standards
Test procedures and standards
Standardization levels
4.7 Test results and suitability for Use of Materials
Use of the test results
Microstructural examinations
- Band structure classification in laminates
- Determining average grain size
- Determination of inclusions in steel
- Estimating the depth of decarburization
4.8 Non-destructive Testing
RT - Radiographic Testing
UT - Ultrasonic Testing
MT - Magnetic Testing
PT - Penetrant Testing
ET - Eddy current Testing
VT - Visual Testing
IT - Infrared Thermography
CT - Computerized Tomography
Thermal Stress Analysis